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Conventional ideas about leadership no longer hold when business success depends on continual innovation, said Linda Hill, the Wallace Brett Donham professor of business administration at the Harvard Business School and co-author of the book Collective Genius: The Art and Practice of Leading Innovation.
She cited as an example how her mentors, John Potter and Warren Bennis, scholars who helped pioneer the contemporary field of leadership studies, defined leadership. For them, leadership is largely about the ability to come up with a vision, communicate that vision and then get people to fulfill that vision. While that sort of top-down approach is effective for leading change, leading innovation is different, argued Hill, who has spent the last decade studying leaders of innovation around the globe.
"Innovation leaders see their primary role not as the visionary, but as the creator of a context in which others are willing and able to innovate," said Hill during a keynote session at the recent LiveWorx event in Boston in which she offered up advice to IT professionals on leading innovation.
In other words, as a leader of innovation, you're not necessarily the person who's out in front telling everybody "this is where we're going," Hill said. Instead, you're the "stage setter" -- giving the players a shared purpose and letting them go from there.
"If you want to innovate and if you want to get at something new, you have to unleash the talents and the passions of individuals," Hill said.
However, if innovation leaders want those individual sparks of innovation to be useful, they have to figure out how to harness all the diverse ideas, talents and passions of their teams to do something that actually meets the needs of the collective good. That's one of the many tests leaders face: whether they can unleash and harness, Hill said.
Give them space
When it comes to unleashing innovation, a gentle push in the right direction is better than a forceful shove, according to Hill.
Linda Hillprofessor of business administration, Harvard Business School
"You cannot tell people to innovate," Hill said. "Formal authority has nothing to do with whether they'll innovate. You have to get people to volunteer and want to do what is really emotionally and intellectually taxing work."
A piece of that puzzle is understanding that these people "don't want to follow you to the future, they want to co-create that future with you," Hill said. Innovation leaders need to create the space where that co-creation can happen -- where a leader's vision serves as a starting point rather than an ending point.
"Steve Jobs understood that innovation comes from collective genius, not solo genius," Hill said. "Innovation is a team sport. [Successful innovation leaders like Jobs] really think you need to be a part of a community if you're going to be able to innovate."
Hill also relayed some interesting advice from her friend and study subject Bill Coughran, former senior vice president of engineering at Google. Coughran's advice to innovation leaders when people come to them looking for guidance: "Keep it fuzzy."
"They're going to get nervous, depressed and frustrated and they're going to come to you and want you to tell them what to do," Hill said. "But the first time you tell them, that's it. They'll rely on you too much, they'll delegate back to you and they won't do the collaborative work that needs to be done."
Hill said it's the innovation leader's job to coach everyone in the organization, no matter their position, how to be not only a "value creator," but also a "game-changer." A value creator is someone who knows how to identify and close the performance gap -- the gap between where the organization is now and where it should be. A game-changer is someone who knows how to identify and close the "opportunity gap" -- a gap between where the organization is now and where it could be.
In fact, if innovation leaders want to hold onto talent, they need to give the talent the chance to work on opportunity gaps, Hill said. That usually means letting the talent work on cutting-edge projects. If innovation leaders don't do that, the talent is more likely to defect because they're not going learn the expertise required to make new things happen and therefore they're not going to be as marketable.
Innovation leaders, it seems, can't be without vision themselves. To create an environment where new things happen -- and where the talent is excited to innovate -- leaders need to have a clear "point of view" on technology and innovation, as Hill put it. "If you don't have a point of view, they don't want to play with you," she said.