Apps, infrastructure and operations Definitions

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  • #

    121 (one-to-one)

    In Internet e-commerce, 121 is short for one-to-one, the philosophy that treating each customer as a special individual is a more successful approach than treating customers as a group of similar individuals.

  • A

    adaptive enterprise (or adaptive organization)

    An adaptive enterprise (or adaptive organization) is a corporation, institution, or agency in which the business demand and the IT (information technology) supply are matched and synchronized at all times.

  • AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt)

    AIBO (pronounced eye-bow) is an entertainment robot designed by Sony.

  • B

    B2B (business-to-business)

    On the internet, B2B (business-to-business), also known as e-biz, is the exchange of products, services or information (aka e-commerce) between businesses, rather than between businesses and consumers.

  • B2G (Business2Government or Business-to-Government)

    On the Internet, B2G is business-to-government (a variation of the term B2B or business-to-business), the concept that businesses and government agencies can use central Web sites to exchange information and do business with each other more efficiently than they usually can off the Web.

  • black swan event

    A black swan event is an incident that occurs randomly and unexpectedly, and has a major effect on operations. The phrase illustrates the frailty of inductive reasoning and the danger of making sweeping generalizations from limited observations.

  • blockchain

    Blockchain is a type of distributed ledger for maintaining a permanent and tamper-proof record of transactional data.

  • bricks and mortar

    Bricks and mortar refers to businesses that have physical (rather than virtual or online) presences - in other words, stores (built of physical material such as bricks and mortar) that you can drive to and enter physically to see, touch, and purchase merchandise.

  • Bullfighter

    Bullfighter is a software application that searches documents for jargon, overworked terms, and unnecessarily complicated sentences.

  • business activity monitoring (BAM)

    Business activity monitoring (BAM), also called business activity management, is the use of technology to proactively define and analyze critical opportunities and risks in an enterprise to maximize profitability and optimize efficiency... (Continued)

  • business continuity management (BCM)

    Business continuity management (BCM) is a framework for identifying an organization's risk of exposure to internal and external threats.

  • business process management (BPM)

    Business process management (BPM) is the discipline of improving a business process from end to end by analyzing it, modelling how it works in different scenarios, executing improvements, monitoring the improved process and continually optimizing it.

  • Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI)

    Established in August 2000, the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) is a non-profit organization that exists to promote the standardization of common business processes, as a means of furthering e-business and B2B development.

  • business process management software

    Business process management software (BPMS) helps companies design, model, execute, automate and improve a set of activities and tasks that, when completed, achieve an organizational goal.

  • Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)

    Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) is a method of illustrating business processes in the form of a diagram similar to a flowchart... (Continued)

  • business process outsourcing (BPO)

    Business process outsourcing, or BPO, is a business practice in which one organization hires another company to perform a process task that the hiring organization requires for its own business to operate successfully.

  • business process reengineering (BPR)

    Business process reengineering (BPR) is an approach to change management in which the related tasks required to obtain a specific business outcome are radically redesigned. An important goal of BPR is to analyze workflows within and between enterprises in order to optimize end-to-end processes and eliminate tasks that do not provide the customer with value.

  • business resilience

    Business resilience is the ability an organization has to quickly adapt to disruptions while maintaining continuous business operations and safeguarding people, assets and overall brand equity.

  • business technology management (BTM)

    Business technology management (BTM) is a term for a group of services intended to help businesses that might not have their own information technology (IT) department.

  • Business Transaction Protocol (BTP)

    The Business Transaction Protocol (BTP) is an XML-based protocol being developed by the Business Transactions Technical Committee (BT TC) of the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) as a standardized Internet-based means of managing complex, ongoing business-to-business (B2B) transactions among multiple organizations.

  • C

    California Security Breach Information Act (SB-1386)

    In the United States, the California Security Breach Information Act (SB-1386) is a California state law requiring organizations that maintain personal information about individuals to inform those individuals if the security of their information is compromised.

  • CCO (Corporate or Chief Compliance Officer)

    A Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) is a corporate official in charge of overseeing and managing compliance issues within an organization, ensuring, for example, that a company is complying with regulatory requirements and that the company and its employees are complying with internal policies and procedures. 

  • CEO (Chief Executive Officer)

    The CEO, or chief executive officer, is the top position in an organization. CEOs are responsible for executing existing plans and policies, overseeing business management and setting future strategy.

  • CFO (Chief Financial Officer)

    CFO (Chief Financial Officer) is the corporate title for the person responsible for managing the company's financial operations and strategy.

  • chief data officer (CDO)

    A chief data officer (CDO) is a C-level executive who is responsible for an organization's data use and data governance.

  • conformance

    In information technology, a state or acts of adherence to a certain specification, standard, or guideline.

  • coopetition (co-opetition)

    Coopetition is a business strategy that uses insights gained from game theory to understand when it is better for competitors to work together. 

  • core competency (core competencies)

    Core competency is an organization's defining strength, providing the foundation from which the business will grow, seize upon new opportunities and deliver value to customers.

  • corportal (Corporate Portal)

    Corportal is short for "corporate portal."

  • CVO (chief visionary officer)

    Chief Visionary Officer (CVO) is a new title being used in corporations to differentiate the holder from other corporate executives including the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), the Chief Information Officer (CIO), and the Chief Technology Officer (CTO).

  • D

    dashboard

    In information technology, a dashboard is a user interface that, somewhat resembling an automobile's dashboard, organizes and presents information in a way that is easy to read.

  • data collection

    Data collection is a process for gathering information from different sources. In business, data collection helps organizations answer relevant questions and evaluate possible business outcomes.

  • data latency

    Data latency is the time it takes for data packets to be stored or retrieved

  • decision support system (DSS)

    A decision support system (DSS) is a computer program application that analyzes business data and presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily.

  • digital process automation

    Digital process automation (DPA) is a method of automation that uses software to perform processes and automate tasks with the goal of completing and optimizing a workflow.

  • digital rights management (DRM)

    Digital rights management (DRM) is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media. (Continued)

  • distributed ledger technology (DLT)

    Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is a digital system for recording the transaction of assets in which the transactions and their details are recorded in multiple places at the same time.

  • E

    e-brokerage

    An e-brokerage is a brokerage house that allows you to buy and sell stocks and obtain investment information from its Web site.

  • e-procurement (supplier exchange)

    E-procurement is the business-to-business purchase and sale of supplies and services over the Internet.

  • e-services (electronic services)

    E-services, a business concept developed by Hewlett Packard (HP), is the idea that the World Wide Web is moving beyond e-business and e-commerce (that is, completing sales on the Web) into a new phase where many business services can be provided for a business or consumer using the Web.

  • e-speak

    E-speak is an open software platform designed by HP to facilitate the delivery of e-services (electronic services) over the Internet.

  • e-tailing (electronic retailing)

    E-tailing (less frequently: etailing) is the selling of retail goods on the Internet.

  • E2E (exchange-to-exchange)

    On the Internet, E2E has been used to mean exchange-to-exchange - that is, the exchange of information or transactions between Web sites that themselves serve as exchanges or brokers for goods and services between businesses.

  • EBPP (electronic bill presentment and payment)

    On the Internet, electronic bill presentment and payment (EBPP) is a process that enables bills to be created, delivered, and paid over the Internet.

  • EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture)

    EISA is a standard bus (computer interconnection) architecture that extends the ISA standard to a 32-bit interface.

  • employee assistance program (EAP)

    An employee assistance program (EAP) is an arrangement between a corporation, academic institution or government agency and its employees that provides a variety of support programs for the employees... (Continued)

  • End User License Agreement (EULA)

    An End User License Agreement (EULA) is a legal contract between a software application author or publisher and the user of that application.

  • enterprise architecture (EA)

    An enterprise architecture (EA) is a conceptual blueprint that defines the structure and operation of an organization.

  • enterprise data hub

    An enterprise data hub, also referred to as a data lake, is a new big data management model for big data that utilizes Hadoop as the central data repository.

  • enterprise IT (enterprise-class IT)

    Enterprise IT, also known as enterprise-class IT, is hardware and software designed to meet the demands of a large organization. In comparison to consumers and small companies, an enterprise has greater requirements for availability, reliability, scalability, performance and security, among other things.

  • entrepreneur (entrepreneurship)

    An entrepreneur is an individual who identifies a need in the marketplace and works to fulfill it.

  • ephemeral messaging

    Ephemeral messaging is the mobile-to-mobile transmission of multimedia messages that automatically disappear from the recipient's screen after the message has been viewed.

  • executive dashboard

    An executive dashboard is a computer interface that displays the key performance indicators (KPIs) that corporate officers need to effectively run an enterprise.

  • F

    FQA (frequently questioned answers)

    FQA (frequently questioned answers) are conventions or mandates scrutinized by individuals or groups who doubt their validity.

  • G

    global information infrastructure (GII)

    The global information infrastructure (GII) is the developing communications framework intended to eventually connect all telecommunications and computer networks world-wide.

  • globalization

    Globalization is the process by which ideas, goods and services spread throughout the world.

  • glocalization

    Glocalization is the concept that in a global market, a product or service is more likely to succeed when it is customized for the locality or culture in which it is sold. For example, the international fast food chain McDonalds illustrates the concept of glocalization by changing their menus to appeal to local palates and customs.

  • Government Information Awareness (GIA)

    Government Information Awareness (GIA) is a Web site dedicated to making it easy for U.S. citizens to know more about their government and is somewhat the reverse of the government's Terrorism Information Awareness (TIA) program, which aims at knowing more about its citizens.

  • Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)

    The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLB Act or GLBA), also known as the Financial Modernization Act of 1999, is a federal law enacted in the United States to control the ways that financial institutions deal with the private information of individuals.

  • green IT (green information technology)

    Green IT (green information technology) is the practice of environmentally sustainable computing.

  • H

    H-1B

    H-1B is a United States Immigration Service visa classification that permits employers to hire highly skilled foreign workers who possess theoretical and practical application of a body of specialized knowledge.

  • horizontal scalability (scaling out)

    Horizontal scalability is the ability to connect multiple hardware or software entities so that they work as a single logical unit. When servers are clustered, the original server is being scaled out horizontally.

  • hot site and cold site

    A hot site is a commercial disaster recovery service that allows a business to continue computer and network operations in the event of a computer or equipment disaster.

  • I

    ICT (information and communications technology, or technologies)

    ICT, or information and communications technology (or technologies), is the infrastructure and components that enable modern computing.

  • Information and Content Exchange (ICE)

    Information and Content Exchange (ICE) is an XML-based standard protocol for electronic business-to-business (B2B) asset management.

  • information superhighway (infobahn)

    Information superhighway is a term that was used mainly in the 1990s to describe a national communications network that would span the United States and allow Americans to quickly access and exchange information via voice, data, video and other services.

  • Instagram

    Instagram is a free, online photo-sharing application and social network platform that was acquired by Facebook in 2012.

  • integration server

    An integration server is a computer server used to facilitate interaction between diverse operating systems and applications across internal and external networked computer systems.

  • intelligent agent

    On the Internet, an intelligent agent (or simply an agent) is a program that gathers information or performs some other service without your immediate presence and on some regular schedule.

  • Intelligent workload management (IWM)

    Intelligent workload management (IWM) is an approach to running IT systems in a way that rationally optimizes and maximizes use of computing resources and directing them toward better processing, workflow and delivery of services.

  • intermediary

    In general, an intermediary is a person or service that is involved as a third party between two or more end points in a communication or transaction.

  • ISBN (International Standard Book Number)

    The ISBN (International Standard Book Number) is a unique number assigned to a book title by its publisher for tracking and ordering purposes.

  • IT continuity (information technology continuity)

    IT continuity (information technology continuity) is the holistic management of technology systems toward the guarantee that essential business operations will proceed in the event of a major disruption.

  • ITSO (International Technical Support Organization)

    ITSO (International Technical Support Organization), a creation of IBM and its Lotus and Tivoli subsidiaries, provides information technology (IT) professionals and customers with technical information, assistance, guidance, and training.

  • K

    key risk indicator (KRI)

    A key risk indicator (KRI) is a metric for measuring the likelihood that the combined probability of an event and its consequence will exceed the organization's risk appetite and have a profoundly negative impact on an organization's ability to be successful. 

  • knowledge

    In information technology, knowledge is, to an enterprise or an individual, the possession of information or the ability to quickly locate it.

  • L

    learning management system (LMS)

    A learning management system (LMS) is a software application or web-based technology used to plan, implement and assess a specific learning process.

  • LOB (line-of-business)

    An LOB (line-of-business) application is one of the set of critical computer applications that are vital to running an enterprise, such as accounting, supply chain management, and resource planning applications.

  • localization

    Localization (sometimes shortened to "L10n") is the process of adapting a product or service to a particular language, culture and desired local "look-and-feel." The process of first enabling a product to be localized and then localizing it for different national audiences is sometimes known as product globalization.

  • M

    metered services (pay-per-use)

    Metered services (also called pay-per-use) is any type of payment structure in which a customer has access to potentially unlimited resources but only pays for what they actually use.

  • Microsoft Dynamics AX (Microsoft Axapta)

    Microsoft Dynamics AX is a multi-language, multi-currency, industry-specific global enterprise resource planning (ERP) software product.

  • microtargeting

    Microtargeting is (also called micro-targeting or micro-niche targeting) is a marketing strategy that uses consumer data and demographics to identify individuals or small groups of like-minded individuals and influence their thoughts or actions.

  • migration

    In information technology (IT), migration is the process of moving from the use of one operating environment to another operating environment that is, in most cases, thought to be a better one.

  • N

    Napster

    Napster is a controversial application that allows people to share music over the Internet without having to purchase their own copy on CD. After downloading Napster, a user can get access to music recorded in the MP3 format from other users who are online at the same time.

  • nearshore outsourcing

    Nearshore outsourcing is the practice of getting work done or services performed by people in neighboring countries rather than in your own country.

  • net metering

    Net metering is a utility resource usage and payment scheme in which a customer who generates their own power is compensated monetarily.

  • NetRexx

    NetRexx, a programming language designed to be easier to learn and use than Java, combines the syntax of the Rexx language and the semantics of Java.

  • O

    ODMA (Open Document Management API or Application Program Interface)

    ODMA (Open Document Management API or Application Program Interface) is an industry standard interface for managing documents that allows users to store, retrieve, and share them with security and version control.

  • offshore outsourcing

    Offshore outsourcing, a type of business process outsourcing (BPO), is the exporting of IT-related work from the United States and other developed countries to areas of the world where there is both political stability and lower labor costs or tax savings.

  • out of the box

    "Out of the box" is an expression that describes nonconformal, creative thinking.

  • P

    portal software

    Portal software is a type of development tool used to create a portal (starting point) on a company's intranet so that employees can find a centralized starting place for access to consolidated enterprise-related functions, such as e-mail, customer relationship management (CRM) tools, company information, workgroup systems, and other applications.

  • pretexting

    Pretexting is a form of social engineering in which one individual lies to obtain privileged data about another individual in order to engage in identity theft or corporate espionage. A pretext is a false motive.

  • PunchOut

    PunchOut is an e-procurement software application from Ariba that makes it possible for a buyer to access a supplier's Web site from within the buyer's own procurement application.

  • pure play

    Pure play is a business term used to indicate a company, business model or investment focused on a particular industry, product, service or line of distribution.

  • R

    redact

    To redact is to edit, or prepare for publishing.

  • Reddit

    Reddit is a social news website and forum where content is socially curated and promoted by site members through voting.

  • request for quotation (RFQ)

    A request for quotation (RFQ) is a document that an organization submits to one or more potential suppliers eliciting quotations for a product or service.

  • resource allocation

    Resource allocation is the process of assigning and managing assets in a manner that supports an organization's strategic goals.

  • What is RPA? Everything you need to know

    Robotic process automation technology is software that can be trained to mimic routine, labor-intensive tasks performed by humans.

  • S

    Safe Harbor

    Safe Harbor is the name of a policy agreement established between the United States Department of Commerce and the European Union in November 2000. The agreement, which regulated the way that U.S. companies could export and handle the personal data of European citizens, was ruled invalid in 2015.

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