Authentic leadership is a type of management style in which people act in a real, genuine and sincere way that is true to who they are as individuals. Proponents of authentic leadership say this type of leader is best positioned to inspire trust, loyalty and strong performances from employees.
The belief that leaders who are authentic produce good -- and sometimes the best -- results is a long-standing idea that has been documented as part of modern management studies for at least two decades. However, this leadership philosophy has not always been identified specifically using the term authentic leadership, as its roots trace back thousands of years.
History of development into a working philosophy
Authentic leadership has its roots in ancient Greek philosophy, which examined the development of cardinal virtues, such as prudence, temperance, justice and fortitude, in a leader.
However, authentic leadership came to the forefront of management studies in the past few decades with the publication of several research papers, articles and books.
One of the best-known books on the topic, Authentic Leadership: Rediscovering the Secrets to Creating Lasting Value, was published in 2003 and was written by former Medtronic CEO and Chairman Bill George. This book catapulted the authentic leadership management style into widespread acceptance, including among many CEOs. It urged the new generation of 21st-century leaders to lead with their hearts, as well as their minds, and with passion and an ethical code.
George also authored the 2007 book True North: Discover Your Authentic Leadership and 2008's Finding Your True North: A Personal Guide, among other titles.
The 2003 publication of "Authentic leadership: A positive developmental approach," a research paper by management professors Fred Luthans and Bruce J. Avolio, was also an important milestone in the evolution of this leadership theory.
The interest in, and promotion of, authentic leadership has gained popularity in the years following these works.
Proponents of authentic leadership, including George, list a number of key attributes that define an authentic leader. Those attributes include being genuine.
Leadership theorists say that an authentic leader rejects the idea that they have to adopt a persona different than their own. Authentic leaders also don't believe their professional self is different than their personal or private self. Instead, authentic leaders are self-aware and know their strengths and weaknesses.
Other characteristics of authentic leaders include:
- They are focused on delivering results, particularly in the long term.
- They are driven by the organization's mission and needs and not their own ego.
- They have integrity and are guided by morals, while also displaying strong ethical characters.
- They are disciplined and committed to their own improvement and growth.
- They possess a healthy amount of emotional intelligence and are empathetic to others' needs.
Proponents of authentic leadership say that these characteristics not only inspire trust and loyalty in employees but, when taken together, they give leaders the ability to influence others and contribute to an organization's success.
Assessments such as the Authentic Leadership Inventory (ALI) and the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) exist to help individuals and organizations measure these traits. Authentic leadership development courses are available, as well.
Challenges to authentic leadership theory
Some leadership and management experts have pushed back on the promotion of authentic leadership and the value that proponents believe it brings to the work environment.
Critics have charged that authentic leadership can promote rigidity in individuals who think that being true and genuine excuses them from evolving their ideas following new challenges, experiences and insights.
Critics have also said that authentic leadership's belief in presenting one's true self, and not a persona, can prevent someone from being an effective leader. For example, these critics contend that, sometimes, those in leadership positions need to adapt to the expectations and cultural norms of their workplaces, employees and audiences.