Understanding blockchain: Tutorial for CIOs
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This past weekend, security researchers discovered that some of the world's most popular and far-reaching websites,...
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including AOL, BBC, MSN and The New York Times, exposed their customers to ransomware via their online ads. The incident, unfortunately, isn't unprecedented. The problem of ransomware, in fact, is on the rise -- and the U.S. government is appraising the digital currency that is associated with this cybercrime.
Malicious advertisements, which trick victims into installing ransomware and other types of malware, have also recently hit Forbes and Yahoo. RiskIQ, a cybersecurity company in San Francisco, reported the number of unique malvertisements in June 2015 rose 60% from the same time the year before. Ransomware, in particular, is spiking rapidly: According to McAfee Labs' August 2015 Threats Report, this type of cyberextortion grew 58% in the second quarter of 2015, compared with Q2 of 2014.
The criminals who unleash ransomware encrypt victims' data and demand payment in bitcoins in exchange for the decryption key. The burgeoning problem of ransomware, combined with the lack of regulation around the cryptocurrency Bitcoin and its underlying technology, has started to draw the attention of U.S. legislators.
Blockchain, the distributed ledger technology that underpins Bitcoin and other digital currency transactions, has been in use for eight years. However, the promise and potentially disruptive effects of the technology, particularly in the finance and legal fields, has only recently reached Congress' awareness, with legislators such as Rep. David Schweikert (R.-Ariz.) calling for greater education among their peers.
But given the lack of awareness in Congress around blockchain, and the role of Bitcoin in cybercrime and terrorism, other legislators are currently focused more on blockchain security and the risks associated with the technology, as opposed to its potentially good uses. In a testimony on the topic that was held before the House Subcommittee on Commerce, Manufacturing and Trade on Tuesday, committee members expressed their concern that blockchain enables cybercriminals by giving them a way to transfer money that is hard to trace by law enforcement.
"It isn't like a bag of bitcoins can be taken down to the wharf and left under a boat," said Michael Burgess, the subcommittee's chairman. "When I questioned, 'Well, why don't you just follow the digital trail?' Well, you can't do that. ... Could you enlighten the subcommittee on the law enforcement aspect?" he asked the witnesses, who comprised blockchain experts from various fields.
Witness Jerry Brito, executive director of Coin Center, a public policy organization dedicated to digital currency research, acknowledged that ransomware is a very serious problem made possible by Bitcoin, as well as cryptography and data breaches.
But he and fellow witnesses stressed that despite the negative uses of cryptography, cryptocurrencies and blockhain, they also come with important benefits. Cryptography, for example, helps keep sensitive financial data safe. And blockchain architecture could be applied more broadly to assets other than virtual currency, such as land deeds, birth certificates and sale contracts.
"It is attractive to start thinking about the blockchain as something that is permissioned, not just anonymous," said Gennaro Cuomo, vice president of blockchain technology at IBM, whose Global Financing division runs its transactions on blockchain. "For example, two parties exchanging car VIN numbers may have a certain level of permissions. Maybe one is an auto manufacturer, maybe the other is an auto dealer. You might be able to see those cars that only pertain to your transaction. ... But the Department of Motor Vehicles, when it comes to the door of the car club, is given broader permissions as an auditor in that blockchain network."
The problem doesn't lie with Bitcoin or blockchain, they said. Instead, it's more about cybersecurity.
"The third component of ransomware -- the breach, the hack, the lack of cybersecurity -- that's where the real concern is," Brito said.
Dana Syracuse, counsel at BuckleySandler LLP, based in Washington, D.C., agreed, saying Bitcoin itself -- as well as other virtual currencies -- is highly traceable using blockchain forensics that can follow the flow of transactions.
"This allows one to follow transactions using blockchain forensics from one exchange to another or from wallet to wallet."
This traceability is what keeps the use of Bitcoin for terrorist financing and money laundering, one of the major concerns brought up by the subcommittee, to a minimum.
"Those are the very fringe use cases," said Matthew Roszak, chairman of the Chamber of Digital Commerce, a trade association. "Digital currency, especially Bitcoin, is not a great use of funding for criminal activities."
Brito concurred. "To date, we have not seen terrorist financing using digital currency. ... Cash is still the No. 1 way people conduct terrorist financing," he said.
What Congress and law enforcement need to be looking at instead is the "on-ramp" and the "off-ramp" of the people making these transactions -- their entry and exit points, respectively -- and make sure these are regulated, according to Syracuse.
Dana Syracusecounsel, BuckleySandler
"It is a story about cybersecurity. It's a larger conversation that needs to be had around regulation in that area and creating proper standards there," Syracuse said. Furthermore, it's important that law enforcement officials educate themselves on the forensics tools available, so they can trace funds, he added.
Brito also advised steering the blockchain security conversation to the uses of cryptocurrencies, emphasizing the value of educating law enforcement on tools that are available to track these transactions. He pointed to the role of public and private forums, such as the Blockchain Alliance: The forum, which was jointly formed by Coin Center, the Chamber of Digital Commerce and other companies, enables law enforcement and companies participating in digital currencies to discuss these topics.
So, what aspects of Bitcoin and its ecosystem should be regulated, and should they be regulated by existing money transfer laws?
The answer to this question is complex, as Syracuse laid out. In New York, for example, existing laws would cover the transmission of money from one point to another, but not the exchange companies or wallet companies. Other states' laws, however, could very well cover these other aspects, he said.
When it comes to developing new regulations, Congress would need to consider multiple factors in addition to cybersecurity, including antilaundering and consumer protection, Syracuse added.
CIO news roundup for week of March 14
Blockchain security was only one of many eye-catching tech headlines this week:
- In the latest round in Apple's privacy battle with the feds, the company said it wants to ramp up the encryption of its iCloud storage service without inconveniencing customers. There are some hurdles to overcome, however: Taking steps such as giving only the user the key to their encrypted data could mean trouble if the user loses that key, but if Apple keeps a second key, that copy could be compromised.
- Instagram is joining the likes of Facebook and Twitter and is jumping on the algorithm bandwagon. The photo-sharing company is personalizing its feed based on an algorithm that will place photos it deems you will be most interested in at the top of your feed, instead of in chronological order. Many users aren't keen on the development, however.
- Amazon is so done with "awkward" passwords. The online retail giant has a filed a patent for facial recognition technology that would allow customers to authenticate payments by taking a picture or video of themselves instead of entering a password. On top of security, the company wants to improve UI: "The entry of these passwords on portable devices is not user-friendly in many cases, as the small touchscreen or keyboard elements can be difficult to accurately select using a relatively large human finger," said the company in a filing.
- Should you 3D-print your own cheap pair of braces instead of paying thousands at the orthodontist? Sounds too good to be true, but one college student did it. Amos Dudley, a New Jersey Institute of Technology student, used the school's 3D printer to create the corrective retainers; 16 weeks was all it took to fix his snaggle tooth. Don't try this at home, though, orthodontists warned.
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