Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, deliverables, tasks, costs and deadlines.
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The scope of a project lays out the steps needed to fulfill a project's goals: It defines what the project's end product is, what work it will take to deliver it, how much it will cost and when it will be done.
A project scope statement is a written document that includes all the required information for producing the project deliverables. More detailed than a statement of work, the project scope statement helps the project team remain focused and on task.
The scope statement also provides the project team leader or facilitator with guidelines for making decisions about change requests during the project. It is natural for parts of a large project to change along the way, so the better the project has been scoped at the beginning, the better the project team will be able to manage change.
The project scope statement also establishes what is not included in initiatives, either implicitly or explicitly. Objectives and tasks not listed in the project scope statement should be considered out of scope. Project managers can also list specific work that will not be part of the project.
As such, this statement establishes the boundaries of each specific project.
Please note, a project's scope statement should not be confused with its charter; a project's charter simply documents that the project exists.
How project scope works
The scope statement should be used by project managers and their teams to guide decisions on the project as it moves forward.
A well-articulated scope statement is considered a critical part of effective project management.
Project scope should be determined for every project regardless of what project management methodology is used.
How to define the scope of a project
Defining project scope requires input from the project stakeholders, who together with project managers establish the key elements of budget, objectives, quality and timeline.
To determine a project scope, project managers must gather information from stakeholders (team members, executive sponsors, customers, etc.).
This typically involves collecting requirements for what the stakeholders need from the project -- in other words, the project's objective or the project's deliverables, when they need the project done, and how much they can pay for it.
The goal is to gather and record precise and accurate information during this process, so that the project scope effectively reflects all requirements and thus improves the chances for project leaders to deliver products that meet stakeholder expectations on time and on budget.
Writing a project scope statement
Project leaders need to take those requirements and map out what should happen and in what order those items need to occur.
This generally leads to the creation of a work breakdown structure (WBS). As the name states, the work breakdown structure breaks down the totality of planned work into smaller portions and required tasks.
Stakeholders should have the opportunity to review the project scope statement, revise it as necessary and then approve it.
Once a project scope is completed, project managers can effectively allocate tasks and give their teams directions on what they each need to do to meet the target timelines and costs.
Scope management and planning
Project managers should anticipate the need for updates and changes as projects progress.
However, they should carefully control what changes are made to the established project scope and they should document all changes made during the process.
This requires strong project management skills.
It also requires project managers and stakeholders to adhere to the project scope statement by recognizing what pieces are within the project scope and what requests are out of scope.
Project managers should rely on change management processes that determine how such requests should be evaluated while considering updates and alterations to the project.
The ability to distinguish between which requests are truly needed and which are out of scope allows organizations to avoid scope creep. Scope creep happens when more and more work is tacked onto projects as they're underway. Scope creep frequently adds extra costs and unnecessarily work while muddling objectives and threatening the quality of the intended deliverables.
Project scope vs. product scope
Project scope should not be confused with product scope.
Product scope defines the capabilities, characteristics, features and functions of the end result of the project.
Project leaders should create a product scope statement and they should use both the project scope and the product scope statements to support each other and establish for their organizations a clear understanding of what every project aims to achieve.
Why it's important
Here are the benefits a project scope statement provides to any organization undertaking a new initiative. It:
- articulates what the project entails so that all stakeholders can understand what's involved;
- provides a roadmap that managers can use to assign tasks, schedule work and budget appropriately;
- helps focus team members on common objectives; and
- prevents projects, particularly complex ones, from expanding beyond the established vision.
Thus, project managers generally find that establishing project scope ensures projects are focused and executed to expectations. They provide strong foundations for managing projects as they move forward and help ensure that resources aren't diverted or wasted on out-of-scope elements, thereby supporting organizations to produce the deliverables they want on time and on budget.