Data privacy, also called information privacy, is the aspect of information technology (IT) that deals with the ability an organization or individual has to determine what data in a computer system can be shared with third parties.
In the United States, legislation concerning data privacy has been enacted in a sectorial manner, which means that each law or compliance regulation has been created in response to the needs of a particular industry or section of the population. Examples include:
Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) - gives parents control over what information websites can collect from their kids.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) - ensures patient confidentiality for all healthcare-related data.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) - extends government restrictions on wire taps to include transmissions of electronic data.
Video Privacy Protection Act - prevents wrongful disclosure of an individual's personally identifiable information stemming from their rental or purchase of audiovisual material.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act - mandates how financial institutions must deal with the private information of individuals.